My thesis project aims to identify how climatic changes during the Holocene (last 11700 years) have affected mountain ecosystems of the Mediterranean Basin. This study will document these environments’ changes, in terms of vegetation and soil, in response to human activities and climate, in order to better apprehend the temporal and spatial complexity of Mediterranean landscapes. Indeed, these factors determining vegetation changes intertwine today; however, their respective impacts are still debated along the Holocene. My PhD aims to study through sedimentary records two Mediterranean regions poorly documented: the South of Apennines in Italy with the Lake Matese and the Lesser Caucasus in Armenia with the Lake Sevan. Several paleoenvironmental markers are used in this study: Pollen, Non-Pollen Palynomorphs (NPP) and molecular biomarkers (brGDGT).